Social Movements: "an organized, uninstitutionalized, and large collectivity that emerges to bring about or to resist a program of change in societal norms and values,operates primarily through persuasive strategies, and encounters opposition in a moral struggle. (Stewart, Smith and Denton, 1994, p.1-7)
Types of social movements:
Key questions about social movements:
What is the ideology?
What assumptions in the status quo are being challenged?
Examine the group's:
Degree of openness
View of Human Nature
View of Conflict
Nature of Persuasion
Nature of the "the People"
Type of Environment
Bowers, J. W., Ochs, D. J. and R. J. Jensen, (1993), The Rhetoric of Agitation and Control, Prospect Heights,IL:Waveland.
1.Petition-normal discursive means of persuasion: speeches, petitions to the government, letters....
2.Promulgation- win and attract support of new members: posters, meetings, notices to the media....
3.Solidification- unite followers inside the group: essays, plays, songs, art work, symbols, slogans
4.Polarization- moves individuals into agitation; division of us versus "them"
5.Nonviolent resistance- sit-ins, boycotts, fasts, picket lines, prayer meetings....
6. Escalation and Confrontation- escalate tension until the establishment is confused, overreacts, looks foolish or acts afraid. This may force the SQ to give in to some demands.
7.Ghandi vs. guerrilla- the movement splits into two or more groups. The larger group is nonviolent and the smaller group
(underground) is committed to violence.
8.Guerrilla- large scale guerrilla attacks take place. The underground group now has support from some members of the community.
9.Revolution- full scale war or civil war breaks out. Armies are used.
Rhetoric of Control
1.Counter persuasion or Avoidance- evasion, buck-passing, postponement, secrecy, denial of means
2. Suppression-harassment, denial of demands, banishment, attempts to kill or control the leaders
3.Adjustment- changing names, sacrificing personnel, accepting some agitation, incorporate some of the dissent personnel or dissent ideology.
4.Capitulation- give in to most of the demands
© 2007 Gloria Boone