Old & New 


Some things you might consider when lookings at an old advertiment:

Size of the ad: Full page, half, quarter, less than quarter

Artwork: Photo, Drawing, Painting, Multiple, Type only

Image to copy ratio: All visual, more than 50% visual, less than 50% visual, no visual- all copy

What is shown: Product only, People using the product, People only

Mode of Proof: Ethos (credibility of the source or company), Pathos (appeal to emotions), Logos (rational appeals)

Tactical Focus: Features of the Products (Product specification), Benefits of the product to the consumer, Avoid risk

Formats: Positioning (top product, best, unique niche, expensive, inexpensive...), Demonstration, Coupon, Testimony of experts or customers, Humor, Contest or Prize

Type of Advertising Appeal  from Pollay's 42 Advertising Appeals from

Pollay, R. W. (1983). Measuring the Cultural Values Manifest in Advertising. Current Issues and Research in Advertising. J. H. Leigh and C. R. Martin. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press: 71-92.

Audience Analysis. Discuss if any of the above elements would appeal to the audience of the time period. For example, would it catch their attention, appeal to their need, values, desires or self image?


Conclusion: brief summary


References: use APA style.



Examples of APA style references from http://www.apastyle.org/faqs.html#8

Journal article:

Fine, M. A., & Kurdek, L. A. (1993). Reflections on determining authorship
credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations. American Psychologist, 48, 1141-1147.


Nicol, A. A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: A
practical guide for creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Book chapter:

O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys:
Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.

Examples of online references: http://www.apastyle.org/elecgeneral.html

Online periodical:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author,  C. C. (2000).
    Title of article. Title of  Periodical, xx, xxxxxx.
    Retrieved month day, year, from source.

Online document:

Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work.
   Retrieved month day, year, from source.






APA style guide





Pollay's 42 Advertising Appeals :

Appeal           Description

Effective         Feasible, workable, useful, pragmatic,
                        appropriate, functional, consistent,
                        efficient, helpful, comfortable
                        (clothes), tasty (food), strength,
                        longevity of effect

Durable           Long-lasting, permanent, stable,
                        enduring, strong, powerful, hearty,

Convenient    Handy, time-saving, quick, easy,
                        suitable, accessible, versatile

Ornamental    Beautiful, decorative, ornate, adorned,
                        embellished, detailed, designed, styled

Cheap             Economical, inexpensive, bargain,
                        cut-rate, penny-pinching, discounted, at
                        cost, undervalued, a good value

Dear               Expensive, rich, valuable, highly
                        regarded, costly, extravagant,
                        exorbitant, luxurious, priceless

Distinctive     Rare, unique, unusual, scarce,
                        infrequent, exclusive, tasteful,
                        elegant, subtle, esoteric, hand-

Popular           Commonplace, customary, well-known,
                        conventional, regular, usual, ordinary,
                        normal, standard, typical, universal,
                        general, everyday

Traditional     Classic, historical, antique, legendary,
                        time-honored, long-standing, venerable,

Modern          Contemporary, modern, new, improved,
                        progressive, advanced introducing,
                        announcing ...

Natural            References to the elements, animals,
                        vegetables, minerals, farming,
                        unadulterated, purity (of product),
                        organic, grown, nutritious

Technological    Engineered, fabricated, formulated,
                        manufactured, constructed, processed,
                        resulting from science, invention,
                        discovery, research, containing secret

Wisdom         Knowledge, education, awareness,
                        intelligence, curiosity, satisfaction,
                        comprehension, sagacity, expertise,
                        judgment, experience

Magic             Miracles, magic, mysticism, mystery,
                        witchcraft, wizardry, superstitions,
                        occult sciences, mythic characters, to
                        mesmerize, astonish, bewitch, fill with

Productivity   References to achievement,
                        accomplishment, ambition, success,
                        careers, self-development, being
                        skilled, accomplished, proficient,
                        pulling your weight, contributing, doing
                        your share

Relaxation      Rest, retire, retreat, loaf,
                        contentment, be at ease, be laid-back,
                        vacations, holiday, to observe

Enjoyment     To have fun, laugh, be happy, celebrate,
                        to enjoy games, parties, feasts and
                        festivities, to participate

Maturity         Being adult, grown-up, middle-aged,
                        senior, elderly, having associated
                        insight, wisdom, mellowness, adjustment,
                        references to aging, death, retirement,
                        or age-related disabilities or

Youth             Being young or rejuvenated, children,
                        kids, immature, underdeveloped, junior,

Safety             Security (from external threat),
                        carefulness, caution, stability, absence
                        of hazards, potential injury, or other
                        risks, guarantees, warranties,
                        manufacturers' reassurances

Tamed             Docile, civilized, restrained, obedient,
                        compliant, faithful, reliable,
                        responsible, domesticated, sacrificing,

Morality         Humane, just, fair, honest, ethical,
                        reputable, principled, religious,
                        devoted, spiritual

Modesty        Being modest, naive, demure, innocent,
                        inhibited, bashful, reserved, timid,
                        coy, virtuous, pure, shy, virginal

Humility         Unaffected, unassuming, unobtrusive,
                        patient, fate-accepting, resigned, meek,
                        plain-folk, down-to-earth

Plain                Unaffected, natural, prosaic, homespun,
                        simple, artless, unpretentious

Frail                Delicate, frail, dainty, sensitive,
                        tender, susceptible, vulnerable, soft,

Adventure     Boldness, daring, bravery, courage,
                        seeking adventure, thrills, or

Untamed        Primitive, untamed, fierce, course,
                        rowdy, ribald, obscene, voracious,
                        gluttonous, frenzied, uncontrolled,
                        unreliable, corrupt,  deceitful,

Freedom         Spontaneous, carefree, abandoned,
                        indulgent, at liberty, uninhibited,

Casual             Unkempt, disheveled, messy, disordered,
                        untidy, rugged, rumpled, sloppy, casual,
                        irregular, not compulsive, imperfect

Vain                Having a socially desirable appearance,
                        being beautiful, pretty, handsome, being
                        fashionable, well-groomed, tailored,
                        graceful, glamorous

Sexuality         Erotic relations: holding hands,
                        kissing, embracing between lovers,
                        dating, romance, intense sensuality,
                        feeling sexual, erotic behavior, lust,
                        earthiness, indecency, attractiveness of
                        clearly sexual nature

Independence    Self-sufficiency, self-reliance,
                        autonomy, unattached, to do-it-yourself,
                        to do your own thing, original,
                        unconventional, singular, nonconformist

Security          Confident, secure, possessing dignity,
                        self-worth, self-esteem, self-respect,
                        peace of mind

Status             Envy, social status or competitiveness,
                        conceit, boasting, prestige, power,
                        dominance, exhibitionism, pride in
                        ownership, wealth (including the sudden
                        wealth of prizes), trend-setting, to
                        seek compliments

Affiliation       To be accepted, liked by peers,
                        colleagues, and community at large, to
                        associate or gather with, to be social,
                        to join, unite, or otherwise bond in
                        friendship, fellowship, companionship,
                        cooperation, reciprocity, to conform to
                        social customs, have manners, social
                        graces and decorum, tact and finesse

Nurturance    To give gifts, especially sympathy, help
                        love, charity, support, comfort,
                        protection, nursing, consolation, or
                        otherwise care for the weak, disabled,
                        inexperienced, tired, young, elderly,

Succorance    To receive expressions of love (all
                        expressions except sexuality),
                        gratitude, pats on the back, to feel

Family            Nurturance within the family, having a
                        home, being at home, family privacy,
                        companionship of siblings, kinship,
                        getting married

Community    Relating to community, state, national
                        publics, public spiritedness, group
                        unity, national identity, society,
                        patriotism, civic and community
                        organizations or other than social

Healthy          Fitness, vim, vigor, vitality, strength,
                        heartiness, to be active, athletic,
                        robust, peppy, free from disease,
                        illness, infection, or addiction

Neat                 Orderly, neat, precise, tidy, clean,
                        spotless, unsoiled, sweet-smelling,
                        bright, free from dirt, refuse, pests,
                        vermin, stains and smells, sanitary



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